How to move Microsoft's Windows 11 from a hard drive to an SSD – IT PRO

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If your main PC storage is still a hard disk, by far the biggest speed boost you could give to your system is to replace that with a solid-state disk (SSD).
Although SSDs are more expensive on a per-gigabyte basis, they generally offer much better performance. Windows 11 should load much more quickly when you first boot the PC and programmes should open in an instant.
Swapping out a hard disk for an SSD is a relatively straightforward upgrade, although you’ll first need to transfer all the data from your current hard disk to the SSD. We’re going to talk you through that process.
The first thing you’re going to need to sort is the SSD itself and here there are two things to consider: disk size and disk capacity.
If you’re replacing a hard disk in a laptop, you’re almost certainly going to need a 2.5in internal SSD that connects to the SATA port. Things are slightly easier with desktop computers, which normally have spare bays that let you install an SSD alongside your current hard disk.
A note on M.2 SSDs: Modern desktop motherboards also often come with an empty M.2 slot, usually located just below the CPU. This is designed to support smaller form factor SSDs, among other things, and is especially handy if you’re short on space or bay options. If you're planning to buy an M.2 SSD, just be aware that these come in a variety of sizes and types, each with their own connectors – so make sure to do your homework in order to get the one you need.
Before you make any purchase, check you can access the existing hard disk, especially on laptops or all-in-one PCs where it’s not always possible to remove the internal storage. You may need to consult your laptop/PC’s manual – usually available from the manufacturer’s website – to find out how to access the hard disk and you may need special screwdrivers to reach them.
SSD capacity is the other issue you need to consider. First you need to find out how much data is stored on your current hard disk.
Open Windows Explorer, click This PC and see how much data is stored on your C: Drive. Watch out for disks that have been partitioned, for example a system with Windows on C: and Data on D: – you need to add up both in those instances.
Ideally, you want an SSD that’s bigger than your current pool of data and then leave some room to spare. Beware, however, that SSDs start to get very expensive when you creep above capacities of 2TB.
If you’re replacing the hard disk in a laptop or all-in-one, you may find there aren’t any spare drive bays to have your old and new drives running at the same time. In this case, you’ll need to buy a SATA-to-USB adapter/enclosure so that you can plug the SSD into the laptop’s USB port and copy data from your existing hard disk.
Finally, if you’re adding a new SSD to a desktop PC and you’re planning on keeping your old drive, you’ll need to make sure you have spare SATA cables to connect your new SSD to the motherboard and power supply. If you're using M.2 SSD, this won't be an issue.
Before we get to cloning the data from the current hard disk to the new SSD, time for some housekeeping.
First, open Windows Search, type ‘add’ and open the ‘Add or remove programmes’ function. Remove any applications you no longer use or need, as there’s no point in copying over redundant data. Likewise, empty the Recycle Bin and Downloads folder, and clear out anything else you don’t need. After doing this, you might find you can get away with a smaller SSD, which will also be far cheaper.
Next, you need to take a full backup of your PC, just in case something goes wrong. It’s advised that you do this for most things involving your hard drive, but moving data to a new drive is a fairly risky process without a backup.
Fortunately, Windows 11 has a variety of built-in backup options, including backing up files to Microsoft’s cloud storage service OneDrive or using the File History tool with an external hard disk/SSD. We won’t go through these options in detail in this article, but this site gives a good overview of the options.
Make sure your system is fully powered down for the following step:
Once the backup is sorted, it’s time to plug in the SSD – either via the USB caddy or by putting it straight in a desktop PC.
If you’re adding an SSD to a desktop PC, simply attach the new drive to a spare bay. Some PC cases come fitted with dedicated SSD bays, often located on the reverse side of the panel housing the motherboard. However, you may find that your case only has hard drive bays, in which case you’ll need to buy an SSD caddy or adapter. Once secured, connect the SSD to the motherboard and power supply using SATA cables.
If using an M.2 SSD, simply place the drive into the spare slot on the motherboard and screw in the other end using an M.2 screw.
Windows generally won’t display new hard drives or SSDs in File Explorer until they are initialised and partitioned. In order to set this up, open up the Windows search and type ‘partition’ and select the option to ‘Create and format hard disk partitions’. When you open that you should be offered the option to initialise the disk using either GPT or MBR.
It’s important to note here that Windows 11 will only boot from drives that are formatted using GPT – so you should select this option. Once the process is complete, the drive should appear as an unallocated space in the Disk Management window.
Now it’s time to start moving data to your new SSD. There’s a lot of software out there that can be used to clone hard disks, and the SSD you bought might even come with some that does the job.
If you don’t have any to hand, the free version of Macrium Reflect will do nicely. You’ll need to hand over your email address, and they’ll send you a download link and registration code via email. Install that on your Windows 11 PC, and when you get to the screen asking for a licence key, just select Next and enter the registration code on the following screen.
Once Macrium is installed, select your current hard disk and click the ‘Clone This Disk’ button that appears beneath it. This will bring up a wizard that will walk you through the process. Make sure all the partitions of your current hard disk are selected for cloning, and then select your newly created SSD as the destination drive. Ignore the prompts asking you to save a backup schedule and click OK to run the backup.
This process could take a fair while, depending on the amount of data you have to copy.
Now is the time to swap the drives if you’re swapping the old hard disk for the new SSD in a laptop or all-in-one. Be very careful while you do this – remember to note down where all the screws you remove come from and use an anti-static band or ensure you ground yourself before touching those sensitive electrical parts.
Once you’ve got the old drive out, simply slide in the new SSD into the bay and then replace the screws.
When you press the power button, your system might boot automatically from the new drive after you’ve replaced the old hard disk with the new SSD. If not, or if you have put the new SSD into a PC alongside the old hard disk, you will have to instruct it to boot up from the new drive.
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In order to do this, you’ll have to open the UEFI setup screen in BIOS. You can do this by holding down a key immediately after you press the power button. This might differ from system to system, but usually it is either the DEL key or one of the function keys, like F1 or F2, along the top row of the keyboard. The key or keys you need to press are usually displayed on the splash screen which appears when you boot up your system, along with your motherboard’s manufacturer logo, but you can also find this information online by using your PC model or laptop and searching ‘UEFI key’.
Once in the UEFI menu, search for boot options and alter the boot sequence so it boots from the new SSD drive. Make sure you save your settings and Windows 11 should now load from your new drive.
If all of that is done correctly, you should notice immediate improvements to your system – it will generally take only a few seconds to boot to the desktop or login screen, and programs should load almost immediately.
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